The reservoir for Lyme disease is animal.
Correct Answer: Animal
The reservoir for cholera is nonliving.
Correct Answer: Nonliving
The reservoir for typhoid fever is animal.
The reservoir for measles is human.
Correct Answer: Other human
The reservoir for anthrax is animal.
Ticks are living. All the other choices are nonliving reservoirs.
Correct Answer: Ticks
For direct contact transmission there needs to be direct contact between an infected and an uninfected person, such as through kissing. Fomites, such as towels and air droplets, illustrate indirect contact. Mosquitos and ticks are vectors.
Correct Answer: An infected person kissing a non-infected person
Indirect contact transmission occurs through intermediates that are usually nonliving articles, such as tissues, handkerchiefs, towels, bedding, and contaminated needles, the latter easily transferring HIV and hepatitis B. In direct contact transmission there is no intermediary between the infected person and the uninfected person. Droplet contact transmission occurs through sneezing, coughing, and even laughing, and is the transmission type seen in the transfer of respiratory diseases such as influenza and whooping cough. Vector transmission requires a vector such as a mosquito.
Correct Answer: Indirect contact transmission
Neutropenia is a lower-than-normal number of neutrophils in the blood. The administration of cytotoxic chemotherapy is the most common cause of neutropenia while the other causes occur less frequently.
Correct Answer: The administration of cytotoxic chemotherapy
Indirect transmission of an infectious agent occurs when a vehicle carrying the infectious agent touches a person's body or is ingested. Vehicles include water, ice, milk, food, serum, plasma, or other biological products.
Correct Answer: All of the choices
Herd immunity occurs when a large portion of the population is immune. People with the disease will encounter susceptible people infrequently (in this case only 10% of the time) and this will result in fewer transmissions. It will appear from the disease incidence that nearly everyone in the population was immune.
Correct Answer: To enable herd immunity to function
A nosocomial infection is any infection acquired in a hospital or other medical facility.
Correct Answer: In healthcare settings
While nosocomial infections can occur in any organ they are most common in the urinary tract.
Correct Answer: The urinary tract
The most likely fomite for a nosocomial infection is a catheter (used in urinary tract procedures). Other potential sources of hospital infections include doctors’ white coats, nurses’ uniforms, hospital garments, privacy drapes, stethoscopes, bed rails, and common hospital surfaces.
Correct Answer: Catheter
These procedures apply to all patients, and they include protocols that deal with blood, semen, vaginal secretions, tissue specimens, cerebrospinal, synovial, plural, and peritoneal, pericardial, and amniotic fluids. All medical facilities are required to adhere to the procedures.
Correct Answer: In all medical facilities in the United States
The incidence of a disease is defined as the number of new cases contracted within a set population in a specific period.
Correct Answer: Incidence rate
Sporadic diseases occur in a random and unpredictable manner and pose no threat to public health.
Correct Answer: Sporadic
Prevalence is defined as the total number of people infected within a population at any given time.
Correct Answer: Prevalence
An endemic disease is constantly in the population but in numbers too low to be a public health problem.
Correct Answer: Endemic
The reason is incorrect. The sensitivity of a diagnostic test is important because it can help diagnosis at an earlier time in the infection and at later times in the recovery.
Correct Answer: Incorrect
It is true that it is important to circumvent the patient's normal flora, because otherwise it can make the isolation and identification of the pathogen difficult or impossible.
Correct Answer: Correct
The reason is incorrect. Diagnostic work is usually done according to standard operating procedures because these produce consistent and comparable results.
It is true that health care professionals should have a basic understanding of how biotechnological advances are made, because these advances will impact the health care community.
It is true that monoclonal antibodies are commonly used today because they are powerful tools for diagnosing infectious disease and cancer, and for detecting harmful microorganisms in food.
Both hybridoma and phage display techniques require animal immunization.
Correct Answer: Both
Phage display is used to enlarge antibody libraries.
Correct Answer: Phage display only
Phage display is used to select genes with the desired binding capacity.
Correct Answer: Phage display only
The hybridoma technique uses only mouse cells as the source of antibodies.
Correct Answer: Hybridoma only
The techniques are designed to produce monoclonal antibodies not to produce polyclonal antibodies.
Correct Answer: Neither