The mild symptoms of “a little nausea and tiredness” would occur during the prodromal period. Feeling fine would be the response to the incubation period, the late recovery period, or the disease-free state. The worst symptoms of diarrhea and high temperature would occur during the period of maximum illness. The symptoms would be subsiding during the period of decline.
The five periods of infection are: the incubation period, the time between initial infection and the occurrence of the first symptoms of disease; the prodromal period, when the first mild symptoms appear; the illness period, when symptoms worsen and peak; the period of decline, when the symptoms subside; and convalescence, the recovery period where no signs or symptoms of disease remain.
Correct Answer: I have a little nausea and I’m tired
This is a new virus strain, to which no one has immunity. Everyone the farmer meets in the community can be infected, come down with the disease, and spread it to others. When these people travel, they can spread the disease to others, and eventually it may become a pandemic.
Correct Answer: Her disease might spread over the entire human population
The carrier has been isolated so no there are no opportunities for transmission of the infection.
Correct Answer: Her disease will not spread
Subacute disease symptoms are between those of acute disease and chronic disease. No secondary infection is implied.
Correct Answer: Subacute disease – secondary infection
Etiology is the study of the causes of disease.
Correct Answer: The cause of disease
Microbial antagonism is the ability of normal microbial flora to inhibit the growth of pathogens. Microbes that do no harm under ordinary circumstances can act as a barrier against pathogens by competing for resources such as space by occupying potential sites of attachment for the pathogen, or by creating an environment hostile to the pathogen such as by secreting toxins against the pathogen.
Correct Answer: Protection by normal resident bacteria
In parasitism, one of the partners benefits at the expense of the other.
Correct Answer: Parasitism
Robert Koch was a physician in the nineteenth century and his postulates were first used to determine the cause of bacterial infections. His studies showed that the cause of anthrax in cattle was Bacillus anthrasis.
Correct Answer: Etiology of bacterial infections
The incubation period covers the time between the initial infection and the first symptoms of the disease. The prodromal period follows when the first mild symptoms appear. The disease period is the time when symptoms are most intense. The fourth period is called the period of decline, during which the symptoms subside.
Correct Answer: Incubation period
Antiseptics cannot be used to control a communicable disease. Isolation, quarantine, vector control and vaccination can all be used. Isolation means preventing an infected person from having contact with the general population. Quarantine involves separating individuals who may have been exposed to a communicable disease from the general population. Vector control involves reducing the possibility of disease transmission primarily by the destruction of vector habitats and the inhibition of vector breeding and feeding. Additional measures that can be used to protect against transmission include window screens, mosquito netting, and insect repellents. Vaccination means a population becomes immune to an infection, so there are fewer potential hosts and the infection cannot spread.
Correct Answer: Antiseptics
The period of illness is when symptoms are most intense and peak. The five periods of infection are: the incubation period, the time between initial infection and the occurrence of the first symptoms of disease; the prodromal period, when the first mild symptoms appear; the illness period, when symptoms worsen and peak; the period of decline, when the symptoms subside; and convalescence, the recovery period where no signs or symptoms of disease remain.
Correct Answer: Period of illness
A chronic disease is one that develops slowly and lasts for a long time. These are the opposite of acute diseases which develop quickly and subside quickly.
Correct Answer: Develop slowly and remain for a long time
A latent disease is marked by periods of inactivity either before the onset of symptoms or between attacks. The disease can remain in the host after symptoms have subsided and be reactivated after a period of time.
Correct Answer: Remain in the host after symptoms have gone but are able to be reactivated
Septicemia is an infection caused by the rapid multiplication of pathogens in the blood.
Correct Answer: Blood
The human microbiome is the name given to all the microbes inhabiting (bacteria, viruses, single-cell eukaryotes) the human host. The microbiome can protect against infection as the presence of some organisms can prevent colonization by pathogens. Each host has a unique microbiome, different organs and parts of the body have different local microbiomes, and the microbiome is subject to change with diet, climate, and age.
Correct Answer: All the choices are true