The adaptive immune response can be divided into two parts, the cellular and the humoral (also known as) antibody response.
Correct Answer: Humoral response
The innate immune response is non-specific. All other choices are part of the adaptive response, which is specific.
Correct Answer: The innate response
The specific adaptive immune response develops only against non-self antigens.
Correct Answer: Self from non-self antigens
Monocytes are immature macrophages and do not present antigens (or perform phagocytosis).
Correct Answer: Macrophages and dendritic cells
B cells differentiate into plasma cells which are antibody producing factories.
Correct Answer: Plasma cells
Unlike T cells, the B lymphocyte matures in the bone marrow.
Correct Answer: Thymus
Correct Answer: Bone marrow
The 3 classes of T Cells are helper, cytotoxic and regulatory cells.
Correct Answer: Cytotoxic and helper
The lymph nodes do not contain M cells (M cells are located in Peyer’s patches in GALT, which is the intestinal part of MALT).
Correct Answer: Lymph nodes
Once a phagocytic cell has processed antigens for presentation it is referred to as a mature antigen presenting cell.
Correct Answer: Has recognized and processed antigens before
Clonal selection is the process by which some lymphocytes are destroyed and others are allowed to mature. A precursor cell produces lymphocytes, each with specificity for a different antigen by rearranging segments of the genes that code for antigen receptors. This rearrangement is irreversible and is passed on to progeny cells, generating millions of variants of the antigen receptors on the surface of the lymphocytes.
Correct Answer: Reversible genetic rearrangement
Antigen presentation activates T cells so D and E are incorrect. Activated T cells stay in the node.
Correct Answer: Become activated and remain in the node
Anergy is the state that a T cells assumes when no co-stimulatory signal is present.
Correct Answer: Lymphocyte inactivation due to lack of co-stimulatory signals
The thymus atrophies as a person reaches puberty.
Correct Answer: Atrophies when puberty is reached
The lymph node contains both T and B cells. This T cells are located in the paracortical areas of the node. (B cells are concentrated are located in the medullary sinus and are concentrated in the nodules).
Correct Answer: Paracortical areas
It is essential to negate the immune response to self-antigens. This is done by causing apoptosis (cell suicide) in T cells that have been exposed to self-antigens.
Correct Answer: Apoptosis of T cells
The B cell receptor is a Y shaped immunoglobulin molecule, which has constant and variable regions and two antigen binding sites. Unlike the T cell receptor, it recognizes free antigen.
Correct Answer: It can only recognize antigen bound to MHC molecules
The T cell receptor identifies the antigens that have been broken down by antigen presenting cells when they are associated with MHC. If presentation occurs without MHC recognition, there will be no response.
Correct Answer: Fragments of antigen linked to MHC
Class I MHC is found on all nucleated cells and presents antigen to cytotoxic T cells.
Correct Answer: Cytotoxic T cells
Class II MHC is found on the antigen presenting cells of the immune system and present antigen to helper T cells.
Correct Answer: Helper T cells
Super antigens do not have to be bound by MHC II to be recognized by helper T cells (they can be bound to MHC II, but do so differently to normal antigen). They cause a massive overproduction of cytokines that is harmful to the host.
Correct Answer: Recognized by T cells without being bound to MHC molecules
Antibody molecules have a Y-shaped structure with a tail and two arms. At the end of each arm there is a binding site for the same antigen. Since there are two arms we call the molecule bivalent.
Correct Answer: Two identical binding sites
IgM is the first antibody produced.
Correct Answer: IgM
Naïve T cells are T cells that have not yet been presented with antigen.
Correct Answer: Naïve
Immunological memory is the ability of the adaptive immune system to respond rapidly and effectively to pathogens that have been encountered previously. When an antigen is encountered again, memory cells initiate the secondary immune response, which is quicker and more powerful than the primary response.
Correct Answer: All of the choices
Vaccination is artificially acquired active immunity. It is artificial because there is some type of medical treatment and active because the body is exposed to antigen and makes its own immune products.
Correct Answer: Artificially acquired active immunity