Inflammation is part of the innate immune response, not a failure of the immune response.
Correct Answer: Inflammation
HIV is transmitted through sexual contact or by contact with infected body fluids. Except for direct access through an injection, a needlestick injury, or a blood transfusion, HIV enters the lamina propria when the mucosal epithelial cell layer is broken. Cells of the mucosal immune system, including M cells in the bowel and dendritic antigen-presenting cells in the vagina and cervical epithelium, are prime targets for the initial infection because they function to pick up and process antigens.
Correct Answer: All of the choices
When the number of T cells falls below 200 per milliliter the infection has entered the symptomatic stage.
Correct Answer: The symptomatic phase
Sexual contact is the most frequent transmission method for HIV.
Correct Answer: Sexual transmission
Swelling of the lymph nodes (lymphadenopathy) is one of the first symptoms seen in HIV infection.
Correct Answer: Lymphadenopathy
The acute phase occurs in the first few days of infection and is characterized by flu-like symptoms and swollen lymph nodes. The symptomatic phase is the last stage of the infection, when the individual develops AIDS.
Correct Answer: Acute
HIV has an RNA genome that contains only nine genes.
Correct Answer: 9
Primary immunodeficiency diseases can affect all the listed parts of the immune system. The type of recurrent infection seen is indicative of the part of the immune system affected.
Persistent fungal and viral infections are an indication that T cells are not working properly.
Correct Answer: T cells
Insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus is an example of cytotoxic T cells directly damaging tissues. It is the insulin-producing cells in the pancreas that are affected.
Correct Answer: Cytotoxic T cells
All of the possibilities listed are autoimmune diseases. They all target a specific tissue except SLE, which actually targets DNA.
Correct Answer: Systemic lupus erythematosus
Tolerance to self-antigens prevents autoimmunity.
Correct Answer: Tolerance to self-antigens
IgE is the molecule involved in allergy and hypersensitivity.
Correct Answer: IgE
Hypersensitivity involves specific cells that contain histamines which are released during an allergic response. These cells are called mast cells.
Correct Answer: Mast cells