The overuse of broad-spectrum antibiotics leads to antibiotic resistance. The use of specific prescriptions involves narrow spectrum antibiotics, which do not increase the level of resistance.
Correct Answer: Specific prescriptions for antibiotics
The frequency of use of an antibiotic is the only factor listed that affects the build up of resistance. Antibody response and host immunity refer to the immune response while the inflammatory response is associated with the innate response to infection.
Correct Answer: Frequency of use
VRSA is Vancomycin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus.
Correct Answer: Vancomycin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus
MRSA is resistant to all β-lactam antibiotics, including the penicillins, cephalosporins and carbapenems.
Correct Answer: All of penicillin, cephalosporins and carbapenems
In the case of this type of resistance the mechanism is not destruction of the chemical agent or pumping out of the agent but rather changing the shape of the target so that it is no longer recognized by the antibiotic.
Correct Answer: Changes in the shape of the ribosome
Many patients are prescribed antibiotics for viral illnesses (most upper respiratory tract infections are viral) but antibiotics are totally ineffective against viruses; use of antibiotics in this context is of no clinical benefit and only contributes to the development of antibiotic resistance. It is common practice in the US to use antibiotics as growth promoters in animals destined for the food chain. Immunocompromized people are more prone to infections and therefore need more antibiotics.
Correct Answer: All of inappropriate prescription, food production, and increased numbers of immunodeficient people
The use of an antibiotic creates the evolutionary pressure for bacteria to be resistant to that antibiotic. The less antibiotic there is, the less of an advantage resistance will be, so the slower it will develop.
Correct Answer: Use antibiotics as sparingly and precisely as possible
The useful life of an antibiotic will be shortened if resistance to it develops. Combination therapy with multiple antibiotics reduces the development of resistance thereby increasing the useful life of the drug.
Correct Answer: Using combinations of antibiotics
Active transport of penicillin out of the bacterial cell is required because the concentration of antibiotic is relatively high outside of it. Transport is against the concentration gradient.
Correct Answer: False
Genes for antibiotic resistance are more of a problem on plasmids because they are easily transferred to other bacteria by horizontal gene transfer, which spreads resistance rapidly and widely.
β-lactam antibiotics work by binding to penicillin binding proteins and preventing the proper construction of the bacterial cell wall. Producing PBPs that don’t bind the antibiotic means the bacteria will be resistant to the antibiotic
Correct Answer: True
Potassium clavulanate has no antibacterial activity itself, but it can inhibit the activity of β-lactamase, allowing β-lactam antibiotics to function normally and depriving the bacteria of a major resistance mechanism
Antibiotics promote superinfections because they can kill the bacteria usually present in the body (especially the gut) which allows pathogenic bacteria to colonize the space left behind.
Antibiotics are not effective against viruses, so taking antibiotics will not prevent or cure viral infections.
The main cause of antiviral resistance to antiviral to drugs is mutations to the viral genome, caused by viral DNA polymerases having no proof reading ability and making mistakes.
E. coli is part of the body’s normal microbial flora but resistant strains can colonize new areas of the body and cause potentially fatal infections.
Metabolic pathways can parallel one another, so bacteria can circumvent blocked pathways by using an alternative.
Being resistant to antibiotic is an advantage if there is antibiotic present so these bacteria will survive and pass on the gene that makes them resistant.
Hospitals and other healthcare facilities are ideal settings for the spread of antibiotic resistance.
Handwashing is vitally important in preventing the spread of resistant bacteria, especially in healthcare facilities.
Using more broad-spectrum antibiotics shortens the time taken for antibiotic resistance to develop.
Destroying the antibiotic molecule is only one of several mechanisms by which bacteria can resist the action of antibiotics. Others include efflux pumping, altering the antibiotic target, and using alternative metabolic pathways.