Cystitis is a bladder infection that can be distinguished from urethritis (infection of the urethra) by an acute onset, bacteria in the blood (bacteremia) and urine, and more severe symptoms. Neither causes flank pain &emdash; nephritis (kidney infection) causes flank pain.
Correct Answer: Cystitis often produces flank pain
UTIs are more common in women because the urethra is shorter (bacteria have less far to travel) and nearer the anus (and therefore fecal material). The prostate does not prevent bacterial infections.
Correct Answer: The urethra is shorter in women
Genital warts and papillomas are caused by viruses and candidiasis is caused by a fungus so they are not susceptible to treatment with antibiotics such as penicillin. Syphilis and gonhorrea are both bacterial infections but Neisseria gonhorrea is resistant to penicillin while Treponema pallidum is sensitive to penicillin.
Correct Answer: Syphilis
The causative agent for lymphogranuloma venereum is Chlamydia trachomatis.
Correct Answer: Chlamydia trachomatis
Of the choices listed only genital herpes is a recurrent infection, which is caused by reactivation of a latent infection by herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2).
Correct Answer: Genital herpes
Candida albicans is part of the normal flora, but it can become pathogenic and cause candidiasis when conditions allow. Indwelling catheters and overuse of antibiotics provide additional opportunities for Candida to become pathogenic.
Correct Answer: Candidiasis
Although all of the listed pathogens can cause hospital-acquired (nosocomial) infections, E. coli is the most common cause of these infections.
Correct Answer: E. coli
Cervical cancer is caused by infection with human papilloma virus (HPV) – there is now a vaccine that is recommended as part of the childhood vaccination schedule.
Correct Answer: Human papillomavirus
Using multiple host cell receptors maximizes the potential for infecting epithelial cells, but the other three mechanisms are used to evade the host immune system in the submucosa.
Correct Answer: Using multiple host cell receptors
The elementary body (EB) form of Chlamydia attaches to (unknown) receptors on the host cell and enters through endocytosis. The EB then converts to a different form, called the reticulate body (RB). Vesicles containing RBs do not fuse with lysosomes, but instead fuse with other RB vesicles to form a large inclusion body.
Correct Answer: Vesicles containing reticulate bodies then fuse with lysosome
All portions of the urinary tract are connected to one another by a liquid medium, allowing infection to spread easily.
Correct Answer: True
In many cases the infected individuals will not seek medical help because they are asymptomatic.
Correct Answer: False
There is no animal model for syphilis, so pathogenesis of Treponema pallidum has to be extrapolated from observations of patients with syphilis.
There is little or no inflammatory response during the initial stage of the infection because Treponema pallidum multiplies slowly.
HSV-1 is described as an above-the-waist virus because it causes cold sores around the mouth.