Bacteremia is the condition where bacteria are present in the blood. Sepsis is a condition that arises from bacteremia if the bacteria are not cleared quickly and a massive immune response occurs, causing inflammation, fever, chills, disturbed heartbeat, and organ dysfunction. Intoxication refers to the presence of toxins released by bacteria, and parasitemia is the presence of parasites in the blood.
Correct Answer: Bacteremia
Septic shock is characterized by a severe drop in blood pressure (hypotension).
Correct Answer: A fall in blood pressure
Endocarditis involves excess platelet deposition — colonization of the heart endothelium by pathogens causes the deposition of platelets and fibrin, which leads to the formation of mature vegetation.
Correct Answer: Minimal platelet deposition
Viridans streptococci are responsible for about 30-40% of cases of infectious endocarditis. The other pathogens are causes of intravascular infections.
Correct Answer: Viridans streptococci
Plague is vector-transmitted. It is transmitted by the bite of the rat flea.
Correct Answer: The bite of the rat flea
Yersinia pestis causes plague. Plague is a bacterial disease, which rules out filoviruses. The rat flea Xenopsylla cheopisis is the vector for Y. pestis.
Correct Answer: Yersinia pestis
Pneumonic plague is easily spread from human to human and so is the most contagious form. This is the form of plague referred to as the Black Death in the Middle Ages, which killed about 25 million people in less than 4 years.
Correct Answer: The pneumonic form
Francisella is the genus that contains the species F. tularensis, the organism that causes tularemia.
Correct Answer: Tularemia
The causative agent of Lyme disease is Borrelia burgdorferi.
Correct Answer: Borrelia
Lyme disease is a vector transmitted disease. The reservoir for the Borrelia organisms is the deer, but it is transmitted to humans by ticks.
Correct Answer: Tick to human
Lyme disease involves deer, ticks, mice and humans. There are no rats involved.
Correct Answer: Rats
Rickettsia causes endemic typhus, relapsing fever and Rocky Mountain spotted fever. Yellow fever is caused by a flavivirus which is vector-transmitted by the Aedes aegypti mosquito.
Correct Answer: Yellow fever
Epidemic typhus is a louse transmitted infection.
Correct Answer: Body lice
The etiologic agent of infectious mononucleosis is the Epstein-Barr virus.
Correct Answer: Epstein–Barr virus
Arboviruses are arthropod transmitted, usually by mosquitos, and cause all of the diseases listed except relapsing fever, which is a bacterial infection caused by Borrelia.
Correct Answer: Relapsing fever
Trypanosoma cruzii causes Chagas’ disease, the American form of trypanosomiasis. The African form is known as sleeping sickness and is caused by Trypanosoma brucei.
Correct Answer: Chagas’ disease
Wuchereria bancrofti is a parasite that causes filariasis and is a threadlike roundworm.
Correct Answer: A roundworm
Blood and lymph travel to all parts of the body so and can spread an infection to anywhere in the body.
Correct Answer: True
Any pathogenic organism can enter the blood.
Correct Answer: False
The Black Death killed many millions of people.
Extravascular infections are infections outside the vascular system and can result in either sepsis or septic shock.
Yellow fever and dengue fever are viral infections.
EBV (Epstein Barr infection) is associated with several cancers, including Burkitt’s Lymphoma.
Both tularemia and brucellosis are zoonotic infections.