This question asks about samples that should be obtained from a patient that is vomiting and has diarrhea.
Question A: In this case, the objective of obtaining test samples is to determine if the pathogen responsible for the infection can be identified. Therefore sample from the vomit and form the fecal material would have to be obtained.
Question B: The samples would have to be tested for the presence of pathogens known to cause digestive infections such as shield and salmonella. Remember that selective and differential media can be used to help with these identifications. Pathogens that can be identified should also be tested for antibiotic resistance.
This question is similar to the previous question and involves the discussion of media that we had in this chapter.
Question A: Because this is a respiratory infection, samples should be obtained from the patient’s sputum.
Question B: The tests to be done first could involve Gram staining and the capsule stain. Because most bacterial pneumonia is caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae, which is a Gram-positive diplococcus, the Gram stain could confirm the presence of these organisms. The capsule stain would determine whether a capsule was present; as we learned in earlier chapters, the capsule is a virulence factor for pneumonia. If these tests were positive, the pathogen could be isolated and tested for antibiotic sensitivity.